Peer Reviewed Publication
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Underwater noise from impact pile driving is studied through measurements using a vertical line array (VLA) placed at range 120m from the pile source (water depth 7.5m) over which bathymetry varied gradually increasing to depth 12.5m at the VLA. The data were modeled assuming the pile impact produces a radial expansion that acts as sound source and propagates along the pile at supersonic speed. This leads to the conceptualization of the pile as a discrete, vertical line source for which frequency- and source-depth-dependent complex phasing is applied. Dominant features of the pressure time series versus measurement depth are reproduced in modeled counterparts that are linearly related. These observations include precursor arrivals for which arrival timing depends on hydrophone depth and influence of a sediment sound speed gradient on precursor amplitude. Spatial gradients of model results are taken to obtain estimates of acoustic particle velocity and vector intensity for which active intensity is studied in the time domain. Evaluation of energy streamlines based on time-integrated active intensity, and energy path lines based on instantaneous (or very-short-time integrated) active intensity reveal interesting structure in the acoustic field, including an inference as to the source depth of the precursor.
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