Criteria and Thresholds of U.S. Navy Acoustic and Explosive Effects Analysis.
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command Systems Centre Pacific
Finneran, J. J. and Jenkins, A. K.
Sounds produced from naval activities can be divided into seven categories: (1) Sonars and other active acoustic sources; (2) Explosive detonations; (3) Ship noise; (4) Aircrafts noise; (5) Gunfire and other launch noise; (6) Pile driving; and (7) Airguns. This report summarizes the criteria and thresholds for marine mammals and sea turtles exposed to underwater explosive detonations and sonars and other acoustic sources. Pile driving and seismic airguns, although impulsive sources, lack the potential for shock wave generation and are therefore not treated as explosives, but rather rely on unique criteria and thresholds agreed upon by Navy and NMFS. The criteria and thresholds for pile driving and airguns are therefore not included in this document.
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