The assessment of noise from construction of offshore renewable energy infrastructure

Pay-walled Conference 2019

Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics

Due to the increasing desire for renewable energy and the reduced acceptability of onshore wind developments in the UK, the last few years has seen an increase in the development of large offshore wind farms. Whilst these are generally too far offshore for operational noise to be a concern with turbines typically installed between 5 and 30 km from the coastline. Installation of offshore turbines frequently requires piles to be driven into the seabed during construction of the turbine foundations. Offshore piling can only be carried out under calm sea conditions and relatively low wind speeds so in order to minimise construction periods, piling is typically undertaken whenever weather conditions allow which often results in piles being driven late at night or in the early hours of the morning. This paper discusses the peculiarities of assessing this type of construction noise. In particular, this paper includes a brief discussion of the consenting process that applies to offshore wind energy developments methods for predicting onshore noise levels from piling works at large distances from the coastline, a discussion of the appropriateness or otherwise of standard construction noise criteria to this type of noise and an example of long term monitoring that has previously been carried out to monitor noise levels during construction of an offshore wind farm including examples of noise levels measured at onshore locations during offshore piling. For the purposes of this paper, offshore renewable energy infrastructure includes: – offshore wind turbines; – offshore substations; – offshore meteorological masts; and – offshore cabling. The construction of onshore infrastructure elements (eg. onshore cabling. substations etc.) associated with offshore renewable energy projects is not considered in this paper.

Link To Publication

Similar Research

Responses of Bottlenose Dolphins to Construction and Demolition of Underwater Structures

Open Access Report 2006

Mote Marine Laboratory

Of all of the anthropogenic noise sources in the marine environment, construction and demolition noise and their effects have received perhaps the least attention, and yet...
Read More

A Summary of Existing and Future Potential Treatments for Reducing Underwater Sounds from Oil and Gas Industry Activities

Pay-walled Conference 2007


This paper summarizes the efforts undertaken by the author to identify existing and future potential methods to reduce underwater sound levels created by nearly all oil...
Read More

Likely sensitivity of bottlenose dolphins to pile-driving noise

Pay-walled Journal Article 2006

Water and Environment Journal

Pile driver-generated noise has the potential to affect dolphin populations adversely as it is detectable up to 40 km from the source. At 9 kHz, this...
Read More

Tolerance by ringed seals (Phoca hispida) to impact pipe-driving and construction sounds at an oil production island

Pay-walled Journal Article 2004

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

During June and July 2000, impact pipe-driving sounds at Northstar Island (Prudhoe Bay, Alaska) were recorded underwater and in air at distances 63–3000 m from the...
Read More

Effects of underwater noise on auditory sensitivity of a cyprinid fish

Pay-walled Journal Article 2001

Hearing Research

The ability of a fish to interpret acoustic information in its environment is crucial for its survival. Thus, it is important to understand how underwater noise...
Read More

Criteria and Thresholds of U.S. Navy Acoustic and Explosive Effects Analysis.

Open Access Report 2012

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command Systems Centre Pacific

Sounds produced from naval activities can be divided into seven categories: (1) Sonars and other active acoustic sources; (2) Explosive detonations; (3) Ship noise; (4) Aircrafts...
Read More

Seal monitoring and evaluation for the Gemini offshore windpark: T-construction

Open Access Report 2016


1. Gemini offshore windfarm is located 55 km north of the island of Schiermonnikoog. The construction works for the 150 wind turbines and electrical infrastructure were...
Read More

Pressure pulse characteristics of deep explosions as functions of depth and range.

Open Access Report 1967

Naval Ordnance Laboratory

Thirty-eight TNT ant 18 HBX-3 charges weighing one, eight, and fifty pounds were fired at depths betweeen 500 and 14,000 ft; pressure-time data were measured directly...
Read More
Keywords: Depth, Explosion, Pressure

Ambient Underwater Noise Levels at Norra Midsjöbanken during Construction of the Nord Stream Pipeline.

Open Access Journal Article 2012

Nord Stream

Norra Midsjöbanken is a Natura 2000 area situated approximately 50 km east of the southern tip of Öland island in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)....
Read More

Agreement in Principal for Interim Criteria for Injury to Fish from Pile Driving Activities.

Open Access Meeting documents, Notices 2008

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

A letter to discuss the agreement of interim criteria for injury to fish from pile driving activities....
Read More
Keywords: Fish, Injury, Pile driving