The offshore oil and gas industry (E&P industry) currently operates ~ 6,200 offshore oil and gas installations worldwide. It generates underwater sound at every stage of its process (exploration, construction, extraction, decommissioning) and each activity has the potential to affect the behaviour and physiology of individual cetaceans, with most concerns expressed towards seismic survey explorations. However, the relationship between offshore E&P industry activities and trends in local cetacean stocks has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the effects of E&P sound on cetacean stocks are completely unknown. This review is aimed at a first step in assessing the relationship between cetacean stocks and E&P industry sound.
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