A Brief Review of Anthropogenic Sound in the Oceans

Open Access Journal Article 2007

International Journal of Comparative Psychology

Sound in the oceans is generated by a variety of natural sources, such as breaking waves, rain, and marine animals, as well as a variety of human-produced sources, such as ships, sonars and seismic signals. This overview will begin with a quick review of some basic properties of sound waves with particular reference to differences between the behaviours of these waves underwater versus in air. A basic understanding of the physics of underwater sound is critical to understanding how marine animal acoustic signals have evolved relative to their different functions and how changes in the marine acoustic environment due to increasing anthropogenic sound in the oceans may impact these species. We will then review common sources of anthropogenic sound in the oceans. The frequency contributions of three major sources of underwater anthropogenic sound and their relative intensities will be discussed: naval exercises, seismic surveys and commercial shipping. Finally, a case study examining relative inputs to a regional noise budget, that of the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, will be presented to introduce the audience to methodologies for characterizing and managing sound on an ecosystem level.

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