A dynamic state model of migratory behavior and physiology to assess the consequences of environmental variation and anthropogenic disturbance on marine vertebrates

Open Access Peer Reviewed Publication 2018

The American Naturalist - E-Article

Integrating behavior and physiology is critical to formulating new hypotheses on the evolution of animal life-history strategies. Migratory capital breeders acquire most of the energy they need to sustain migration, gestation, and lactation before parturition. Therefore, when predicting the impact of environmental variation on such species, a mechanistic understanding of the physiology of their migratory behavior is required. Using baleen whales as a model system, we developed a dynamic state variable model that captures the interplay among behavioral decisions, energy, reproductive needs, and the environment. We applied the framework to blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and explored the effects of environmental and anthropogenic perturbations on female reproductive success. We demonstrate the emergence of migration to track prey resources, enabling us to quantify the trade-offs among capital breeding, body condition, and metabolic expenses. We predict that periodic climatic oscillations affect reproductive success less than unprecedented environmental changes do. The effect of localized, acute anthropogenic impacts depended on whales’ behavioral response to the disturbance; chronic, but weaker, disturbances had little effect on reproductive success. Because we link behavior and vital rates by modeling individuals’ energetic budgets, we provide a general framework to investigate the ecology of migration and assess the population consequences of disturbance, while identifying critical knowledge gaps.

Link To Publication

Similar Research

Anthropogenic sound and marine mammal health: measures of the nervous and immune systems before and after intense sound exposure

Pay-walled Journal Article 2004

Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Anthropogenic sound is a potential stressor for marine mammals that may affect health, as has been demonstrated in other mammals. Therefore, we have initiated investigations on...
Read More

A Brief Review of Anthropogenic Sound in the Oceans

Open Access Journal Article 2007

International Journal of Comparative Psychology

Sound in the oceans is generated by a variety of natural sources, such as breaking waves, rain, and marine animals, as well as a variety of...
Read More

Effect of anthropogenic low-frequency noise on the foraging ecology of Balaenoptera whales

Pay-walled Journal Article 2006

Animal Conservation

The human contribution to ambient noise in the ocean has increased over the past 50 years, and is dominated by low-frequency (LF) sound (frequencies <1000 Hz)...
Read More

Response and Responsibility: Regulating Noise Pollution in the Marine Environment

Pay-walled Journal Article 2007

Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy

The ocean is becoming an increasingly noisy environment. With a rise in com-mercial shipping, resource extraction activities, and military-related activities,the underwater ocean environment is a virtual...
Read More

Influences of man-made noise and other human actions on cetacean behaviour

Pay-walled Journal Article 1995

Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology

Behavioral reactions of cetaceans to man-made noises are highly variable, ranging from attraction (e.g. bow riding by dolphins) or no response through short-term changes in behaviour...
Read More

International Regulation Of Transboundary Pollutants: The Emerging Challenge Of Ocean Noise

Open Access Journal Article 2001

Ocena and Coastal Law Journal

Transboundary pollution law poses the challenge of addressing environmental problems irrespective of boundaries in an international legal system that values, above all, territorial sovereignty of individual...
Read More

Determination of environmental sensitivity of acoustic propagation on continental shelves using an equivalent fluid parabolic equation model

Pay-walled Journal Article 1995

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

A coupled environment and acoustic prediction system was developed to evaluate the sensitivity of acoustic propagation on the continental shelf to water column and sediment properties....
Read More

Effects of underwater noise on auditory sensitivity of a cyprinid fish

Pay-walled Journal Article 2001

Hearing Research

The ability of a fish to interpret acoustic information in its environment is crucial for its survival. Thus, it is important to understand how underwater noise...
Read More

Effects of noise exposure on click detection and the temporal resolution ability of the goldfish auditory system

Pay-walled Journal Article 2005

Hearing Research

Hearing specialist fishes investigated so far revealed excellent temporal resolution abilities, enabling them to accurately process temporal patterns of sounds. Because noise is a growing environmental...
Read More

The effects of noise on the auditory sensitivity of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus

Pay-walled Journal Article 2002

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology

As concerns about the effects of underwater anthropogenic noises on the auditory function of organisms increases, it is imperative to assess if all organisms are equally...
Read More