General mathematical expressions for a marine source array’s (1) far-field pulse spectrum, (2) radiated energy density, and (3) directivity are developed for both a source in an infinite homogeneous medium and a source operating near the ocean surface. These results, intended to assist the analysis and design of marine source arrays, apply to any marine source array when (1) individual elements radiate isotropically, (2) their individual waveforms are specified, and (3) the array geometry is specified. Arbitrary geometry and arbitrary isotropic waveforms are allowed.The theory assumes linear superposition of the individually specified waveforms, and is consistent with the ‘square law effect’ for identical elements. For an array of small elements, expended energy agrees with the array’s radiated energy found using far-field methods. Also, the energy radiated from an array with large element spacing is equal to the sum of the independently radiated energies. Two closely spaced identical elements radiate four times the energy contained in a single outgoing waveform over all space.The appropriate directivity definition for marine seismic sources is the ratio of the radiated energy density per unit solid angle in a particular direction to the average radiated energy density per unit solid angle. This definition allows directivity to be expressed explicitly in terms of the individual frequency spectra and geometry.
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