U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Keevin, T.M. and Hempen, G.L.,
This handbook summarizes available literature (e.g., published, state and Federal reports) on the environmental effects of underwater explosions and provides information on the potential use of mitigative strategies to reduce impacts to significant biological systems and species. Chapter 1 outlines natural resource agency concerns and regulatory authority concerning explosive use. Chapter 2 provides information concerning explosives, the physics of explosions, and how explosives react in various media. It is not the intent of this chapter to provide an exhaustive review of the physics of explosions. We have attempted to provide enough information to make the chapters on environmental effects more understandable. The effects of underwater explosions on aquatic plants (Chapter 3), aquatic invertebrates (Chapter 4), fish (Chapter 5), amphibians and reptiles (Chapter 6), aquatic mammals (Chapter 7) are reviewed. Chapter 8 provides information on mitigation techniques to reduce adverse environmental effects of underwater explosions.
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