Underwater noise radiated from offshore pile driving got much attention in recent years due to its threat to the marine environment. This study develops a three-dimensional semi-analytical method, in which the pile is modeled as an elastic thin cylindrical shell, to predict vibration and underwater acoustic radiation caused by hammer impact. The cylindrical shell, subject to the Reissner–Naghdi’s thin shell theory, is decomposed uniformly into shell segments whose motion is governed by a variational equation. The sound pressures in both exterior and interior fluid fields are expanded as analytical functions in frequency domain. The soil is modeled as uncoupled springs and dashpots distributed in three directions. The sound propagation characteristics are investigated based on the dispersion curves. The case study of a model subject to a non-axisymmetric force demonstrates that the radiated sound pressure has dependence on circumferential angle. The case study including an anvil shows that the presence of the anvil tends to lower the frequencies and the amplitudes of the peaks of sound pressure spectrum. A comparison to the measured data shows that the model is capable of predicting the pile driving noise quantitatively. This mechanical model can be used to predict underwater noise of piling and explore potential noise reduction measures to protect marine animals.
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