Effects of offshore wind farm noise on marine mammals and fish.
Thomsen F, Lüdemann K, Kafemann R, Piper W
Since the beginning of the planning and installation of offshore wind farms, the possible impacts on marine mammals and fish have been discussed intensively within the public and the scientific community. Especially the noise created during pile-driving operations involves sound pressure levels that are high enough to impair the hearing system of marine mammals near the source and disrupt their behaviour at considerable distance from the construction site. Previous investigations also indicated that the construction phase will have considerable effects on fish species common in northern European waters. The goal of this study was to provide a further assessment on the effects of offshore wind farm related noise on selected marine mammal and fish species.
Link To Publication
Some links to publications are behind pay-walls and hence might not be readily accessible to the public